Constitution of IACL


Adopted on June 25, 1992, at the Business Meeting of the 1st International Conference on Chinese Linguistics, at Hyatt Hotel, Singapore. Amended by vote on June 11, 1993.



Article I. Name and Objective
  1. This Association shall be known as the International Association of Chinese Linguistics.
     
  2. Its objective shall be the advancement of the scientific study of Chinese languages and linguistics.


Article II. Membership
  1. Membership in the Association shall be open to individuals. There shall be 2 classes of membership: regular and student.
     
  2. Any person who subscribes to the objectives of the Association may become a regular member by payment of dues.
     
  3. Any graduate student enrolled in the regular academic year as a candidate for a degree in a recognized college or university may become a student member on payment of dues. Student membership in the Association requires that the individual submit verification of student status.
     
  4. On or before January 31 of each year, each regular and student member shall pay to the Association an annual fee as dues, in an amount fixed by vote of the Association on recommendation of the Executive Committee. If the annual dues are not received within the time prescribed, the member shall forfeit the rights of membership (as hereunder specified) until payment is received; these rights shall be restored upon the payment of all arrears. A member may pay dues in advance for one or more years, and such dues shall be considered as payment in full regardless of any change in the amount of dues voted by the Association after the date on which they were paid.
     
  5. Membership in the Association entitles a member to the following rights, and only members are entitled to such rights: (a) To vote; (b) To be elected for an office; (c) To attend and present papers in the annual conferences and meetings of the Association, subject to guidelines set up by the Program Committee; (d) To receive newsletters published by the Association; (e) To receive members-only discounts offered through arrangements with the Association.


Article III. Officers and Committees
  1. The officers of the Association shall be a President, a Vice President, an Executive Secretary, a Vice Executive Secretary, and a Treasurer. There shall be an Executive Committee and a Program Committee. The President, Vice President and all members of the Executive Committee shall be elected to office by members of the Association. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, and the Treasurer shall be appointed by the President from among members of the Executive Committee.
     
  2. The President shall serve for one year and shall take office at the conclusion of the Annual Meeting. The President shall preside at the meetings of the Association and the Executive Committee without vote.
     
  3. The Vice President shall be the President-Elect. The Vice President shall serve for one year and become President at the end of the year. The Vice President shall assume the responsibilities of the President in the event that the President cannot perform his/her service as President.
     
  4. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, and Treasurer shall each serve for one year. The responsibilities of the Executive Secretary shall include keeping the records of the deliberations of the Association and the Executive Committee, presenting an annual report to the Association which shall be published by the Association, supervising Newsletters of the Association, and performing such other functions as may be assigned by the President and the Executive Committee. The Vice Executive Secretary and the Treasurer shall each assist the Executive Secretary in the performing of services and in managing the funds of the Association.
     
  5. The Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, the Vice President and 14 other members. The 14 other members must include at least one member each from the following geographical areas: North America, Europe, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong or Singapore.
     
  6. With the exception of the first year of the Association, each member of the Executive Committee shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first year, 8 members of the Executive Committee including the President shall be elected for 1 year; and 8 other members including the Vice President shall be elected for two years (the Vice President first as Vice President, then as President). Each year thereafter, the position of the Vice President and 7 other seats of the Committee shall be vacated, and an election shall be held to fill these positions. No elected member shall be eligible for immediate re-election, except to a different office. However, appointed officers may be appointed by a succeeding President.
     
  7. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once each year. It shall have power to take any action that the Association itself could take, but all its acts must be reported to the Association at the next Annual Meeting. The meetings of the Executive Committee, except for the executive session, shall be open for observation, but without the right to speak or vote, to any member of the Association. The Executive Secretary may ask the Executive Committee to vote upon specific questions by mail and shall do so at the request of any other member. If a majority of the Committee votes for or against any measure thus submitted, that vote shall be decisive. The Executive Committee shall nominate members of the Association for election to the Committee. The slate of nominees shall be mailed to the members at least 3 months in advance of the Annual Meeting. If 2 months before the Annual Meeting, ten or more members have separately and in writing nominated any additional personal member for any position, that name shall be added to the mail ballot submitted to the members. This ballot shall be mailed not less than one months in advance of the Annual Meeting. A quorum shall consist of those replies which have been received by the Executive Secretary two weeks in advance of the date of the Annual Meeting.
     
  8. The Program Committee shall consist of the Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, and three members representing the local organizing committee of the Association's Annual Conference. The Program Committee shall be jointly chaired by the Vice Executive Secretary and a member of the local organizing committee. The Program Committee shall have responsibility for the scholarly content of the Association's conferences and for recommending general policies on the form of the meetings to the Executive Committee for action.


Article IV. Fiscal Policy

All funds of the Association shall be managed by the Treasurer, who shall report to the Executive Secretary. A financial report shall be made each year at the Annual Business Meeting, and its contents shall be open for inspection by members of the Association.


Article V. Meetings
  1. There shall be three kinds of meetings: (a) the Annual Conference, (b) the Annual Business Meeting, and (c) the meeting(s) of the Executive Committee. A quorum shall consist of those present at each meeting. The location and time of each year's conference and meetings shall be determined by the Executive Committee in conjunction with the Program Committee.
     
  2. The Association shall hold one Annual Conference each year. Titles and descriptions of papers to be read at the Conference must be submitted to the Program Committee beforehand, and its disposition of such papers, including a possible limitation of the time to be devoted to them, shall be final.
     
  3. One Annual Business Meeting will be held at the same time and place as the Annual Conference.
     
  4. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once a year. Additional meetings may be held at the discretion of the President.
     
  5. The official languages used in any conference or meeting of the Association shall be Chinese, English, and the language of the conference site, if different from the first two.


Article VI. Publications

The Association shall publish an IACL Newsletter, issued at least once a year by the Secretariat, and sent to all members of the Association. News items should be addressed to the International Association of Chinese Linguistics. The Association does not publish an official journal. Through arrangements with the Association, certain academic publishers may offer members-only subscriptions at substantial discount prices. The proposal for the affiliation of such journals with the Association shall be made by the Executive Committee, subject to approval by the members at the Annual Meeting.


Article VII. Registration and the Secretariat

The Association shall be registered as a non-profit organization in the United States. It shall have an address located in the United States.


Article VIII. Amendments

Any proposed amendment to this constitution must be submitted to the Executive Secretary in writing, signed by at least ten members of the Association. This shall be submitted to the members at the time of the regular election for officers. An amendment must have the approval of two-thirds of the members voting.


Amendments to IACL Constitution

1st Amendment (ratified by vote on June 11, 1993):

This organization is organized exclusively for charitable purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, the Association shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on (a) by an association exempt from Federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue law) or (b) by an association contributions to which are deductible under Section 170(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (or corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue law).

Upon the dissolution of this Association, assets shall be distributed for one or more exempt purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (or corresponding section of any future tax code), or shall be distributed to the federal government, or to a state or local government, for a public purpose. Any such assets not so disposed of shall be disposed by the Court of Common Pleas of the county in which the principal (sic) office of the Association is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such organization or organizations, as said Court shall determine, which are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes.

2nd Amendment (ratified by vote on June 11, 1993):

Appointed Officers

It is proposed that the last sentence of Paragraph 1 of Article III be replaced by:

The Secretary, Treasurer, and Vice Secretary shall be appointed or re-appointed by the incoming President. The appointees need not be members of the Executive Committee. They become ex officio members of the Executive Committee upon appointment.

3rd Amendment (ratified by vote on June 27, 1996):

Life Membership

A new membership category, Life Membership, shall be added to the current available membership categories. Any individual member may become a life member by payment of the appropriate dues set by the Executive Committee. [Article II, paragraph 1, shall then read: "Membership in the Association shall be open to individuals. There shall be 3 classes of membership: regular, student, and life."]

4th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

Annual Membership Dues

It is proposed that the following be added as Paragraph 6 of Article II (Membership):

"6. The amount of life, regular, and student membership dues shall be set by the Executive Committee. In addition to differences among these membership categories, the Executive Committee's decision shall provide for a reduced rate for low-income individuals applying for IACL membership."

Explanatory note:
In the 2000 Annual Meeting (in Singapore) a proposal was approved to offer a reduced annual fee of $15 for individuals with annual income lower than US$15,000 (regardless of their country of origin). The above amendment provides the constitutional ground for this proposal to be put in practice. Currently life members pay $300, regular members $30 annually, and student members $15 annually. A regular member with low income, from henceforth, need only pay $15 annually.

5th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

Schedule of Elections

It is proposed that the following sentences within Paragraph 7, Article III (Officers and Committees):

"The slate of nominees shall be mailed to the members at least 3 months in advance of the Annual Meeting. If 2 months before the Annual Meeting, ten or more members have separately and in writing nominated any additional personal member for any position, that name shall be added to the mail ballot submitted to the members."

be replaced by the following:

"The slate of nominees shall be mailed to the members at least 2 months in advance of the Annual Meeting. If one and a half months before the Annual Meeting, ten or more members have separately and in writing nominated any additional personal member for any position, that name shall be added to the mail ballot submitted to the members."

Explanatory note:
The original requirement of 3 months and 2 months in advance of the annual meeting has proven impractical in spite of considerable diligence on the part of the executive officers. The proposed revision shortens the length requirement and allows more time for the nomination and preparation of ballots.

6th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

The Young Scholar Award

It is proposed that the following paragraph be added to Article V (Meetings), as paragraph 3 (with all following paragraphs renumbered accordingly):

In conjunction with the Annual Conference, a Young Scholar Award competition shall be held once a year to promote, recognize, and encourage scholarship by young scholars. A "young scholar" is someone who is 35 years of age or below and whose current rank is below that of associate professor in the Chinese and American university systems and below that of senior lecturer in the British system. The event is administered by the organizer of the Annual Conference in consultation with the IACL President. Details concerning eligibility of participants and procedures for review and selection shall be provided in guidelines adopted by the Executive Committee and ratified by members at annual meetings.

In addition, IACL may sponsor other ancillary awards in recognition of certain special achievements or for particular purposes. The decision to sponsor such ancillary awards, as well as the guidelines for their organization, shall lie with the Executive Committee and be announced by appropriate means.

Explanatory note:
The YSA has proven to be an important annual event. This paragraph updates the Constitution to accord the YSA the importance it deserves. It also provides the constitutional basis for the adoption of other (current or future) ancillary awards (e.g., the Mantaro J. Hashimoto award in Chinese historical phonology).

7th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

Guideline for the Annual Conference

It is proposed that Paragraph 2, Article V (Meetings) be rephrased as follows:

The Association shall hold one Annual Conference each year, to be hosted by a major institution with international reputation in research activities in Chinese linguistics, at various locations throughout the world. In order to secure a smooth cooperation between the IACL and the host institution, there are certain guidelines, regarding the running of the conference, to be followed. The offer to be host should be communicated formally and in writing from a responsible person of the host institution, of no lower than assistant professor in rank, directly to the Executive Secretary of IACL, preferably two years before the scheduled conference date. In case of multiple offers, the choice will be made by the Executive Committee of the IACL.

Explanatory note:
The essence of the above paragraph was already adopted by the Executive Committee Meeting in 2000. This makes the original paragraph unnecessary: "The Association shall hold one Annual Conference each year. Titles and descriptions of papers to be read at the Conference must be submitted to the Program Committee beforehand, and its disposition of such papers, including a possible limitation of the time to be devoted to them, shall be final."

8th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

The Composition of the Executive Committee Members:

It is proposed that Paragraph 5, Article III (Officers and Committees) be replaced by the following:

The Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, the Vice President, and 14 other members, all elected from among scholars of eminence or established reputation. The composition of the Executive Committee at any given time shall reflect genuine attempts at a good balance of international diversity and proper representation of the geographical areas of residence of the Association's active members.

Explanatory note:
The original text "The Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, the Vice President and 14 other members. The 14 other members must include at least one member each from the following geographical areas: North America, Europe, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong or Singapore" places rigid requirements of area representation that have proven inadequate in some ways and unnecessary in others. For example, there may be grounds to ensure that members are elected from Japan, Korea, or Australia. Furthermore, on occasion no qualified nominees from a given stipulated area are available and willing to run in a given year. Under such rare circumstances, deviation from the original stipulation should be allowed. The new language avoids both problems and enables the Committee to act on their collective wisdom more efficiently.

9th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

Sub-Committees and Advisor

It is proposed that the following sentences be incorporated as Paragraph 9 of Article III (Officers and Committees):

In addition to the Executive Committee and the Program Committee (whose members are elected or constituted as provided above), certain sub-committees (i.e. Nomination Committee, Membership Drive Committee, Newsletter Committee, and Ad Hoc Committee) may be appointed by the President with assistance from the Secretariat. The current President may also appoint a past president to serve in the capacity of an advisor.

10th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002):

Membership Privileges

It is proposed that Paragraph 5, Article II (Membership): "Membership in the Association entitles . . . ; (c) To attend and present papers in the annual . . . ." be rephrased as follows: "Membership in the Association entitles . . . ; (c) To present papers in the annual . . . ."

Explanatory note:
This involves replacing "To attend and present papers . . ." in the original language with the shorter "To present papers . . .". This makes the language more precise, allowing non-members to attend an IACL Conference but requiring active membership for the presentation of papers at the conference.

11th Amendment (ratified by vote in April 2007):

Membership dues cut-off dates

It is proposed that Paragraph 4, Article II be rephrased as follows:

Before the conclusion of the annual conference each year, each regular and student member shall pay to the Association an annual fee as dues, in an amount fixed by vote of the Association upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee. If the annual dues are not received by the time prescribed, the member shall forfeit the rights of membership (as hereunder specified) until payment is received; these rights shall be restored upon the payment of all arrears. A member may pay dues in advance for one or more years, and such dues shall be considered as payment in full regardless of any change in the amount of dues as voted on by the Association after the date on which they were paid.

Explanatory note:
A discrepancy has existed for a long time between the annual date of the IACL conclusion meeting and the calendar year. This confuses members about their membership renewal date and gives rise to complaints from members regarding the validity of their membership terms. Over the years, most of the members pay their annual dues when they register for the IACL annual conference, which takes place in late spring or summer of the given year, but their membership due date is calculated according to the calendar year. Confusion of the cut-off day of the IACL year results largely from Article III of the Constitution. According to Article III. Part 2, and Article III. Part 3, respectively,

The President shall serve for one year and shall take office at the conclusion of the Annual Meeting.

The Vice President shall be the President-Elect. The Vice President shall serve for one year and become President at the end of the year.

There is an obvious inconsistency in these two statements. It is noticed that once the President gives an inauguration speech at the IACL annual meeting, s/he should have been sworn in and the term of Presidency should start, i.e., at the conclusion of the annual conference. The inconsistency in the Constitution therefore requires amending.

12th Amendment (ratified by vote in April 2007):

Election when the annual meeting is suspended for a given year

It is proposed that the following paragraph be added after Paragraph 6, Article III:

If the annual meeting is suspended for a given year, the annual election of the year will still be held.

Explanatory note:
It was pointed out that the Constitution should include a statement about whether the election will still proceed when the annual meeting is suspended. In practice, in 2003 when SARS broke out and the annual meeting was suspended, the election of the year was still held. So a clear statement should be added to the Constitution.

13th Amendment (ratified by vote in April 2007):

Assistant Treasurer

It is proposed that Paragraph 1, Article III, be rephrased as follows:

The officers of the Association shall be a President, a Vice President, an Executive Secretary, a Vice Executive Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Assistant Treasurer. There shall be an Executive Committee and a Program Committee. The President, Vice President and all members of the Executive Committee shall be elected to office by members of the Association. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, Treasurer, and Assistant Treasurer shall be appointed by the President. The Assistant Treasurer must be a member of IACL, who also lives adequately close, as determined by the President, to the Treasurer.

Explanatory note:
The Treasurer has been encountering significant difficulty in handling the Association’s accounts. As a non-profit organization, the Association’s transactions with the bank in Los Angeles cannot be handled via Internet or ATM due to very restrictive Federal laws. Every check, without exception, must be deposited at the bank in person by the appropriate IACL personnel. Transaction documents must be signed by at least two IACL officers. Unfortunately, there is no second IACL officer in Los Angeles to sign the document in front of the bank officers. Therefore there is a need for making amendments to the IACL Constitution regarding the financial handlings of the Association. It is recommended that the IACL has an additional officer who resides in Los Angeles to assist the Treasurer, and that the membership composition of the IACL officers in the Constitution is changed accordingly. Since the IACL Executive Committee members each only serve for two years, it is suggested that the IACL officers, who constantly run the Association, not be chosen from among the Executive Committee members. In fact, in practice the officers are not chosen from the Executive Committee members. It is recommended that the last line of Paragraph 1, Article III of the Constitution be changed accordingly.

14th Amendment (ratified by vote in April 2007):

The POLA Award

It is proposed that the last sentence of Paragraph 3, 4th Amendment (ratified by vote in August 2002) be rephrased as follows:

It also provides the constitutional basis for the adoption of other (current or future) ancillary awards (e.g., the Mantaro J. Hashimoto award in Chinese historical phonology and the POLA award for interdisciplinary linguistics study).

Explanatory note:
This new award is an annual prize in the amount of US $500, established in the honor of Professor Hsin-I Hsieh for his immense contributions to the IACL and to the field of Chinese Linguistics. The award is offered as a token of encouragement to young scholars who wish to devote themselves to interdisciplinary studies in Chinese linguistics, a direction that POLA (Project on Linguistics Analysis) at the University of California at Berkeley has pursued since the 1970’s. The prize will be administered as part of the Young Scholar Award (YSA) process. All papers with an interdisciplinary approach submitted for YSA will automatically be concurrently considered for the POLA Award. Applicants should follow the published YSA guidelines in preparing their submissions. All regulations, restrictions, and selection criteria adopted in the YSA process will apply to papers considered for the POLA Award, with the exception that submissions for the POLA Award must have an interdisciplinary focus, which includes interface studies (phonology-syntax, morph-syntax, syntax-semantics, etc.), studies which combine diachronic and synchronic approaches, those that combine methodologies from different frameworks (formal, functional, typological, etc.), or those that combine linguistics and other disciplines (literature, anthropology, sociology, psychology, computer science, etc.). The first competition for the POLA Award will take place as part of the YSA competition at the 16th annual conference of the IACL, which is to be held in 2008 at Peking University, Beijing, China.

15th Amendment (ratified by vote on June 10, 2011):

Qualifications for the Young Scholar award

It is proposed that section 3 of Article V (Meetings) of the IACL Constitution be changed from

3. In conjunction with the Annual Conference, a Young Scholar Award competition shall be held once a year to promote, recognize, and encourage scholarship by young scholars. A “young scholar” is someone who is 35 years of age or below and whose current rank is below that of associate professor in the Chinese and American university systems and below that of senior lecturer in the British system. The event is administered by the organizer of the Annual Conference in consultation with the IACL President. Details concerning eligibility of participants and procedures for review and selection shall be provided in guidelines adopted by the Executive Committee and ratified by members at annual meetings.

to

3. In conjunction with the Annual Conference, a Young Scholar Award competition shall be held once a year to promote, recognize, and encourage scholarship by young scholars. A “young scholar” is someone who is 35 years of age or below and whose current rank is below that of associate professor in the Chinese and American university systems and below that of senior lecturer in the British system, or its equivalent. The event is administered by the organizer of the Annual Conference in consultation with the IACL President. The criteria for “young scholar” must be met at the time of the deadline for the submission of the paper for competition. Details concerning eligibility of participants and procedures for review and selection shall be provided in guidelines adopted by the Executive Committee and ratified by members at annual meetings.

(The amended part is highlighted by boldface)

16th Amendment (ratified by vote on June 10, 2011):

Assistant Treasurer

It is proposed that Section 1 of Article III (Officers and Committees) of the IACL Constitution be changed from:

1. The officers of the Association shall be a President, a Vice President, an Executive Secretary, a Vice Executive Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Assistant Treasurer. There shall be an Executive Committee and a Program Committee. The President, Vice President and all members of the Executive Committee shall be elected to office by members of the Association. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, Treasurer, and Assistant Treasurer shall be appointed by the President. The Assistant Treasurer must be a member of IACL, who also lives adequately close, as determined by the President, to the Treasurer.

to:

1. The officers of the Association shall be a President, a Vice President, an Executive Secretary, a Vice Executive Secretary, a Treasurer, and optionally an Assistant Treasurer. There shall be an Executive Committee and a Program Committee. The President, Vice President and all members of the Executive Committee shall be elected to office by members of the Association. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, Treasurer, and Assistant Treasurer shall be appointed by the President. Whether an Assistant Treasurer is appointed will be determined by the President. The Assistant Treasurer must be a member of IACL, who also lives adequately close, as determined by the President, to the Treasurer.

(The amended part is highlighted by boldface)

 

17th Amendment (ratified by vote on June 10, 2011):

Officer Terms

It is proposed That Section 4 of Article III (Officers and Committees) of IACL be changed from:

4. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, and Treasurer shall each serve for one year. The responsibilities of the Executive Secretary shall include keeping the records of the deliberations of the Association and the Executive Committee, presenting an annual report to the Association which shall be published by the Association, supervising Newsletters of the Association, and performing such other functions as may be assigned by the President and the Executive Committee. The Vice Executive Secretary and the Treasurer shall each assist the Executive Secretary in the performing of services and in managing the funds of the Association.

to:

4. The Executive Secretary, Vice Executive Secretary, and Treasurer shall each serve for a term of three years, and for a maximum of two terms. To ensure continuity in the operations of the Association, change of office of the Executive Secretary will alternate with that of the Treasurer. The responsibilities of the Executive Secretary shall include keeping the records of the deliberations of the Association and the Executive Committee, presenting an annual report to the Association which shall be published by the Association, supervising Newsletters of the Association, and performing such other functions as may be assigned by the President and the Executive Committee. The Vice Executive Secretary and the Treasurer shall each assist the Executive Secretary in the performing of services and in managing the funds of the Association.

(The amended part is highlighted by boldface)

 


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